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Anfal 1988

  1. The 1988 Anfal Campaign in Iraqi Kurdistan During six months in 1988, tens of thousands of Kurds, the vast majority civilians, died during an Iraqi counter-insurgency campaign code-named the Anfal operation (amaliyet al-Anfal). Precise numbers of the dead are not available
  2. 24 May 1988 to 31 August 1988: The fifth, sixth, seventh stages of the Anfal campaign started in Shaqlawa and Rewandiz districts; 25 August 1988 - 6 September 1988: The eighth stage of Anfal campaign started in the Badinan district [ 1 ] Human Rights Watch. (1993) 'Genocide in Iraq - The Anfal Campaign Against the Kurds.
  3. The Anfal genocide were atrocities committed against Kurdish civilians by the Iraqi government between 1986 and 1989. The atrocities were as a result of the Anfal campaign commissioned by Saddam Hussein aimed at crushing Kurdish resistance in northern Iraq in the last phase of the Iraq-Iran war of.
  4. The Anfal began in earnest in early 1988. A directive from Baghdad ordered commanders to bomb rural areas of the north day or night in order to kill the largest number of persons present
  5. Anfal, officially conducted between February 23 and September 6, 1988, would have eight stages altogether, seven of them targeting areas controlled by the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan. The Kurdish Democratic Party -controlled areas in the northwest of Iraqi Kurdistan, which the regime regarded as a lesser threat, were the target of the Final.
  6. Anfal is the name given by the Iraqis to a series of military actions which lasted from February 23 until September 6, 1988. While it is impossible to understand the Anfal campaign without reference to the final phase of the 1980-1988 Iran-Iraq War, Anfal was not merely a function of that war
  7. This was called the Anfal Campaign by the Iraqis and Kurdish Genocide by the international community. In March of 1988, Iranian troops and Kurdish guerrillas took control of the Iraqi military base in Halabja. Two days later, the Iraqi Air Force fired rockets and napalm into Halabja's residential areas followed by a poison gas attack

The Anfal campaign began four months after the census, with a massive military assault on the PUK headquarters at Sergalou-Bergalou on the night of February 23, 1988. Anfal would have eight stages. Though the Kurdish genocide called the al-Anfal campaign officially occurred in 1988, it was actually the culmination of decades of oppression at the hands of a brutal regime in Iraq Human rights researchers say the 1988 Iraqi military operations known as al-Anfal (the Spoils) was part of a campaign of genocide by the central government in Baghdad against the mainly Kurdish population of northern Iraq. They coincided with the last throes of the Iran-Iraq war and were commanded. The Anfal genocide was the Kurdish genocide that killed between 50,000 and 182,000 Kurds committed during the Al-Anfal campaign (Harakat al-Anfal/Homleh al-Anfal) (Kurdish language: پڕۆسەی ئەنفال ) (Arabic language: حملة الأنفال ‎), a campaign against Kurdistan in northern Iraq, led by Ali.. The latest Tweets from أنفال . (@anfal_1988). ‏‏‏‏كعربة ورد ثقب إطارها وعندما تحطمت. زيّنت الشوارع ! life is ‎‎‎#Art ⛲. بئر مياهه مقدسه

Anfal Campaign and Kurdish Genocide - Department of

  1. 3 First Anfal--The Siege of Sergalou and Bergalou, February 23--March 19, 1988 I will, with engines never exercised, Conquer, sack and utterly consum
  2. occurred in the Anfal genocidal attacks of 1988. During the Iran-Iraq war in the 1980s, the northeast part of Iraqi Kurdistan was affected by the war, and involved the Kurdish parties 4 with their partisans ( Peshmargas ) in the war agains
  3. ating in 1988

What Caused The Anfal Genocide? - WorldAtlas

ئەی هاوار نەقیبەکەش گریا بۆی لە رووداو براکەی ون بوە چۆن دەگری بۆی - Duration: 25:15. KURDISH MEDIA HD 118,795 view Anfal was a series of eight military campaigns conducted by the Iraqi government against rural Kurdish communities in Iraq, which lasted from 23 February until 6 September in 1988. The word al-Anfal is religious in origin: it is the name of the eighth sura or chapter of the Koran, and literally means 'the spoils', as in 'the spoils of.

The Crimes of Saddam Hussein - PB

  1. The Anfal Campaign (Iraqi Kurdistan), 1988 Summary The anti-Kurdish Anfal campaign, mounted between February and September 1988 by the Iraqi regime of Saddam Hussein, was both genocidal and gendercidal in nature. Battle-age men were the primary targets of Anfal, according to Human Rights Watch/Middle East (hereafter, HRW/ME)
  2. 1st Anfal - Jafati Valley. 2nd Anfal - Quara Dagh. 3rd Anfal - Germain. 4th Anfal - Lesser Zab River. 5-7th Anfals - Balisan Valley. 8th Anfal - Dohuk province
  3. The Halabja chemical attack (Kurdish: Kîmyabarana Helebce کیمیابارانی ھەڵەبجە), also known as the Halabja Massacre or Bloody Friday, was a massacre against the Kurdish people that took place on March 16, 1988, during the closing days of the Iran-Iraq War in the Kurdish city of Halabja in Iraq
  4. Al-Anfal Campaign 1986 — 1989 The al-Anfal Campaign (Arabic: حملة الأنفال‎), also known as the Kurdish Genocide, Operation Anfal or simply Anfal, was a genocidal campaign against the Kurdish people (and other non-Arab populations) in Northern Iraq, led by the Iraqi regime of Saddam Hussein and headed by Ali Hassan al-Majid in the final stage

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Anfal overview page - RightsMaps

This video has been created by The American University Of Iraq Sulaimani's students: 1- Alaa Ismael 2- Rozha Kamal 3- Sagvan Rashid 4- Sivar Fakhradin The purpose of creating this video is to. 1988: Thousands die in Halabja gas attack Thousands of people are reported to have been killed and many others injured in a poison gas attack on a Kurdish city in northern Iraq. Up to 20 aircraft, said to include Iraqi Migs and Mirages, were seen overhead at around 1100 local time in Halabja The al-Anfal Campaign (Arabic: حملة الأنفال ‎), also known as Operation Anfal or simply Anfal, was a genocidal [3] campaign against the Kurdish population of Iraq led by the Iraqi regime of Saddam Hussein and headed by Ali Hassan al-Majid The Anfal military campaign ended in September 1988 when Saddam's regime announced a general amnesty for all Kurds (although they were not permitted to return to prohibited zones). In any case, 90 percent of Kurdish villages had essentially been wiped off the map, and the countryside was strewn with land mines to discourage resettlement Anfal Campaign Anfal, which means Spoils of War, is the name of the eighth Sura of the Quran detailing a strategic military operation against non-believers. The Iraqi Baath regime used this name as code for their systematic extermination operations against the Kurds that took place from February 23 until September 6, 1988

Learn About the Kurdish Genocide The Kurdish Projec

Introduction : GENOCIDE IN IRAQ: The Anfal Campaign Against

  1. Anfal, Operation Anfal, arabiska حملة الأنفال, är samlingsnamnet för den serie av militära attacker som utfördes 1988 av den irakiska regimens trupper som leddes av Saddam Hussein. Attackerna riktades mot stora delar av landsbygden i irakiska Kurdistan. Attackerna var åtta stycken till antal och inleddes 18 februari 1988
  2. The Anfal campaign began four months after the census, with a massive military assault on the PUK headquarters at Sergalou-Bergalou on the night of February 23, 1988. Anfal would have eight stages in all, seven of them directed at areas under the control of the PUK
  3. ate all of the Kurds in Iraq. Here are some of the statistics from the genocide: nine cri
  4. d of the Kurdish genocide in 1988 (Al Anfal)

Video: The Kurdish Genocide in Iraq (Al-Anfal Campaign) - Study

BOX 4A THE ANFAL CAMPAIGN AGAINST IRAQI KURDS, 1988 Twenty to twenty-five million Kurds are spread across Iran, Iraq, Turkey, and Syria, constituting by most estimates the world's largest nation without a state of its own. In March 1987, Saddam Hussein's cousin from his hometown o USA var inte ensamma om att inte reagera. I augusti 1988, när Anfal nästan var över, röstade FN:s kommitté för mänskliga rättigheter nej till att fördöma Irak för brott mot de mänskliga rättigheterna. De skandinaviska länderna, Australien, Kanada och Europaparlamentet fördömde dock Irak

BBC NEWS Middle East Anfal: Campaign against the Kurd

What is the Anfal genocide? Introduction The Kurdish genocide was mounted between February and September 1988 on the winding up of the Iran-Iraq war. Central to the atrocities that were perpetrated against Iraqi Kurds was the Anfal campaign. Anfal was the codename used by the Iraqi government in public pronouncements an Anfal: The Kurdish Genocide in Iraq by Khaled Salih Gvteborgs Universitet Iraq and the Kurds: a bibliographic essay (1) In October 1988, while the destruction of Kurdistan and the mass killing of the Kurds by the Iraqi regime was a well-known fact, though understandably not documented, at least in the West, Milton Viorst published a peculiar article in the International Hearald Tribune (2. Anfal campaigns.); Sultan Hashim Ahmad Al-Jabbouri Al-Tai (Jabbouri served as the Commander of Task Force Anfal from February 1988 to April 1, 1988, when he was made commander of the 1st Corps in Suleimaneyah. This defendant was a career military officer, serving forty-one years in the Iraqi Regular Army, reaching the rank o Saddam systematically killed more than 100,000 Iraqi Kurds in the al-Anfal (the spoils of war) campaign, which lasted from February to September 1988, towards the end of Saddam's war against. In particular, from February until September 1988 eight military operations were launched against the Kurds in Northern Iraq known as the Al-Anfal operations. The government targeted villages sympathetic to the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan Party and Kurdistan Democratic Party (pp. 41-42, Trial Verdict)

The Anfal Campaign was the name assigned by Saddam Hussein, President of Iraq, for his genocidal attack on a number of Kurdish tribes in northern Iraq (southern Kurdistan), wherein over 180,000. The attack on Halabja, the worst chemical weapons attack in modern history, was part of a program of attempted genocide of the Kurds - Al-Anfal - which, although much smaller in scale, was just as.

Curator's Statement A Memorial to the Kurdish Genocide of 1988 We have chosen to construct our memorial in a park in New York City. We intend it to be a place where people are forced to face the genocide in Iraq against the Kurds, and we will use the granite blocks to display information abou (In strict sense February 23, 1988 The Al-Anfal campaign (Harakat al-Anfal/Homleh al-Anfal) (Kurdish: پڕۆسەی. suggested a religious justification for its actions. Saddam's Anfal was a mammoth campaign of civic annihilation, displacement and mass killing. The Anfal was unleashed against the Kurds from February through September 1988, and was tied to Saddam's goals in the final phase of the Iran- Iraq war Triage is a 2009 drama film written and directed by Danis Tanović and starring Colin Farrell, Paz Vega, Branko Djuric and Christopher Lee. The film's plot is a dark tale of a photojournalist (Farrell) who comes home after a dangerous assignment in Kurdistan during the 1988 Anfal genocide against the Kurdish people Al-Quran Translation Surah 8.1988. Al-Anfal - Asad Translation recitations and translations. Alim provides the opportunity to learn Quran, Hadith and Islamic histor

Anfal means spoils of war and refers to the eighth surah of the Koran, which describes a strategic act of war against infidels. In 1988, the operation reached its peak. The Baath regime used the name Anfal for a systematic extermination operation against Kurds, which took place between February 23 and September 6, 1988 The operation was codenamed Anfal which literally means 'the spoils of war'. For the survivors of this campaign, Anfal did not end in September 1988: the aftermath of this catastrophe is as much a part of the Anfal story as the gas attacks, disappearances and life in the camps Honor guards carry coffins containing the remains of Kurdish victims, killed in the Anfal campaign in 1988, during a ceremony in Arbil, about 350 km (220 miles) north of Baghdad January 14, 2008 The Surah takes its name Al-Anfal (The Bounties) from the first verse. This Surah has 75 verses and resides between pages 177 to 186 in the Quran Hatha al-Youm In late 2003, I spent some time in Baghdad with the Iraqi Christian community I had agreed to do a sort of assessment of the Iraqi Christian non-governmental aid organizations to determine if they could absorb a large grant of Rudaw Lessons from the Anfal

Saddam Hussein's persecution against the Kurds is too much. It's denying the basic things that human right would want. It's changing the culture and the way that the Kurds live. The Kurds were in this land for few thousand years; since there is history, the Kurds have been in this. The Kurds are the first ones who build the first settlement (Gendercide Watch: The Anfal Campaign (Iraqi Kurdistan), 1988) Then, in 1988, in a separate operation yet during the same time, there was another operation that was carried in the city of Halabja and its surroundings. This came to become the symbol of the tragedies of Iraqi-Kurdistan and of Anfal In April, ousted dictator Saddam Hussein was charged with genocide and crimes against humanity for his role 1988's Anfal campaign against Iraq's Kurdish population. Now, as Iraqis wait for the.

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U.S.: Anfal campaign included poison gas, 'savage attacks' A Kurdish boy in a building allegedly used by the Iraqi army for torture during the 1988 Anfal campaign. SPECIAL REPOR The Anfal campaign took place over eight phases - beginning in 1986, reaching its peak in 1988 including the Halabja genocide that instantly killed 5,000 people and injured another 10,000 The Anfal was at that point just a name for me, one that kept on cropping up in the copies of the secret police documents which I had been given and which maybe had something to do with large numbers of Kurds disappearing in 1988. Many survivors had witnessed the attacks on their villages or other rounding up operations inside northern Iraq. A Poisonous Affair: America, Iraq, and the Gassing of Halabja [Joost R. Hiltermann] on Amazon.com. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. In March 1988, during the Iran-Iraq war, thousands were killed in a chemical attack on a town in Iraqi Kurdistan Anfal and Halabja: The Kurdish Genocide in Iraq. by Minhaj Akreyi. The operation was called Anfal Campaign; Anfal means Spoils of war in Arabic.This was a genocidal campaign that was followed by a series of systematic attacks against the Kurdish population and their means of livelihood - villages, agriculture, infrastructures, roads, etc

It would be known as al-Anfal (The Spoils), in a reference to the eighth sura of the Qur'an. Anfal, officially conducted in 1988, would have eight stages altogether, seven of them targeting areas controlled by the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan The al-Anfal Campaign (Arabic: حملة الأنفال ‎), also known as the Kurdish Genocide, [2] Operation Anfal or simply Anfal, was a genocidal [3] campaign against the Kurdish people (and other non-Arab populations) in Northern Iraq, led by the Iraqi regime of Saddam Hussein and headed by Ali Hassan al-Majid in the final stages of Iran-Iraq War One horrendous attack that took place during the al-Anfal campaign was the chemical attack on March 16, 1988. This chemical poison gas attack was aimed for the Halabja city, and because of this attack about five thousand Kurdish people were killed, though most of them were children and woman, making it even worse If Anfal - a 1988 Iraqi military campaign that involved the rounding up of all civilians found in the Kurdish countryside, their deportation via transit camps to execution sites far from their homes, and the systematic murder of 70-80,000 men, women and children - was a mass atrocity (indeed, a genocide in part), the Iraqi regime.

Anfal is the cruellest atrocity in the modern history of the Middl. On 13-04-1988 we all reached Qalla Charma village. One Response to An Anfal Survivor tells. The Halabja Massacre - 1988. 20 Mar 2012 (North-East Iraq) under the Anfal Campaign by the Saddam regime. 5,000 people lost their lives in one hour due to the chemical bombing. Another 10,000. The latest charges involve Saddam's alleged role in Operation Anfal, the 1988 military campaign launched in the final months of the war with Iran to crush independence-minded Kurdish militias and.

Fun Facts about the name Anfal. How Popular is the name Anfal? Anfal is the 47,835 th most popular name of all time. How many people with the first name Anfal have been born in the United States? From 1880 to 2017, the Social Security Administration has recorded 48 babies born with the first name Anfal in the United States (Formerly Issue #37) Prosecuting Anfal: Applying the Lessons from other tribunals By Michael A. Newton The April 4, 2006 referral of the Anfal case for trial in the Iraqi High Criminal Court is a sign of a maturing institution that is willing to confront the most difficult cases and apply the most modern jurisprudence Date 1986-1989 (In strict sense February 23, 1988 - September 6, 1988) Location Iraq: Result Insurgency weakened but not quelle

Iraq's Crime of Genocide offers a detailed, sober, and water-tight case against the Baghdad regime by reconstructing the history of the Anfal campaign and placing it in the context of Iraqi politics. All those associated with this exemplary project, including Peter Galbraith and Kanan Makiya, deserve the gratitude of a saddened humanity This year, Dr Osman graduated with a PhD degree at the University of Arts London. His PhD project titled Documenting the Kurdish Genocide & Anfal: 1988 is focused on drawings created from details conceived through interviews with victims and survivors of the attacks, stemming from the Kurdish areas of Garmiyan, Qaradagh and Halabja Abstract. In 1988 the Iraqi regime launched the Anfal campaigns against the Kurdish peshmerga and their civil supporters in the rural areas. This article investigates narrations about Anfal constructed by peshmerga ten years after the events

The story of the genocidal campaign against Kurds in 1988 is recorded here: Anfal genocide - Wikipedia. The why for these activities lies in the hearts of the perpetrators. I believe the leaders of Iraq subscribed to the idea that people can and should do whatever they want to do to achieve their own personal goals Saddam chose the name Anfal for a genocidal attack on Iraqi Kurds that he launched in 1986 and continued until 1989. The name for this massacre, which reached its peak in 1988, was taken from a Quranic verse. In this campaign, which was led by Saddam's nephew Ali Hassan al-Majid, an estimated 180,000 men and women of all ages were killed Halabja: How Bush Sr. Continued to Support Saddam After the 1988 Gassing of Thousands And Bush Jr. Used it As a Pretext For War 15 Years Later. Democracy Now! is a 501(c)3 non-profit news. Remembering Halabja chemical attack. which began with the Anfal campaign of the 1980s, and is synonymous with the poisonous gas attack on Halabja in 1988. and is synonymous with the. Their comments came on the second day of the trial, in which Saddam is charged with genocide over the 1987-1988 Operation Anfal, in which troops swept across parts of northern Iraq, destroying.

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Anfal was an anti-Kurdish campaign led by the Iraqi government of Saddam Hussein between 1986 and 1989 (during and just after the Iran-Iraq war). It ended in 1988. The campaign takes its name from Surat Al-Anfal in the Qur'an. It was used as a code name by the former Iraqi Ba'athist regime for a series of military campaigns against Kurdish people The Al-Anfal campaign ended in 1988 with an agreement of amnesty between the two belligerents, Iraqi government and Kurdish rebels. In the aftermath, no gains had been made by the Kurds and their losses can be measured in the immensity of human deaths. Background The Kurdish People The Kurdish region of Iraq is located in north

accurate: the Anfal campaign was a concentrated effort on the part of Hussein and the Iraqi government to clear the Kurdish countryside using both conventional and chemical weapons. Between February 23rd and September 9th of 1988, anywhere from 50,000 to 200,000 Iraqi Kurds were murdered This report is a narrative account of a campaign of extermination against the Kurds of northern Iraq. It is the product of over a year and a half of research, during which a team of Middle East Watch researchers has analyzed several tons of captured Iraqi government documents and carried out field interviews with more than 350 witnesses, most of them survivors of the 1988 campaign known as Anfal Ceremony mourns victims of Iraq's Anfal genocide TUE, 15 JAN 2008 18:14 . Erbil, Iraq, Jan 14 (Reuters) - A genocidal campaign under Saddam Hussein against Iraq's Kurds must never be forgottten, officials said on Monday at a ceremony for 371 victims, whose grieving relatives demanded those responsible be put to death Saddam faces charges of genocide in the trial, which completed its second day Tuesday. Six co-defendants are in the dock with him over the 1987-1988 Anfal campaign, in which troops swept across parts of northern Iraq, destroying villages The Anfal Campaigns was conducted in 1988 and continued for seven months. Throughout the whole campaign, 182000 Kurds were killed, also thousands of Kurdish village had been destroyed. The cruelest part of Anfal campaign is the third part in which every single villages had been destroyed in Gramyan, most of the people were forcibly taken to the.

Facts About The Kurdish Genocide. July 19, 2015, cherran, Leave a comment. The Kurdish Genocide was an act of extreme brutality conducted mainly under the regime of the then President of Iraq, Saddam Hussein Download Presentation 1988 Al-Anfal Campaign An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation. Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author This page was last edited on 19 March 2019, at 12:45. Files are available under licenses specified on their description page. All structured data from the file and property namespaces is available under the Creative Commons CC0 License; all unstructured text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply The campaign takes its name from Surat al-Anfal in the Qur'an, which was used as a code name by the former Iraqi Baathist regime for a series of attacks against the peshmerga rebels and the mostly Kurdish civilian population of rural Northern Iraq, conducted between 1986 and 1989 culminating in 1988 In March 1988, Saddam also ordered the chemical bombing of Halabja, where 5,000 Kurds - including women, children and entire families - were murdered. Some of Iraq's largest military operations against the Kurds took place on April 14, 1988 - which is now the official day of remembrance for those killed in al-Anfal. Parliamentary recognitio

The Al-Anfal Genocide began in 1986 and ended in 1989; On March 16 1988, there was a genocidal poisonous gas attack on the city of Halabja in which 4000-5000 Kurdish people were killed; Anfal, officially conducted in 1988, would have eight stages altogether, seven of them targeting areas controlled by the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan At the same time, 4,500 villages were razed to the ground between 1976 and 1988 undermining the potential of Iraqi Kurdistan's agricultural resources and destroying Kurdistan's rural way of life and heritage. The term al-Anfal is the name given to a succession of attacks against the Kurdish population in Iraq during a specific period Anfal indstilles i september 1988. Anfal-kampagnen blev officielt indstillet den 6. september 1988, hvor Saddam Hussein offentliggjorde, at alle kurdere fik amnesti. Dette var udtryk for, at Saddam Hussein nu var overbevist om, at han havde nedkæmpet al væsentlig kurdisk modstand

An- Anfal Campaign - Genocide of the Iraqi Kurd

In August, 1988, when Anfal was almost over, voted United Nations Human Rights Committee no to to condemn Iraq for crimes against human rights. The Scandinavian countries, Australia, Canada and the European Parliament condemned, however, Iraq. more info: wikipedi Anfal meaning - Astrology for Baby Name Anfal with meaning Spoils of war. This name is from the muslim;Indian;Muslim origin. Variations of this names are no variations. Anfal is a boy name with meaning Spoils of war and Number 7. Get more detail and free horoscope here. The Anfal Campaign Against the Kurds - a 1993 report by Human Rights Watch; Anfal and Halabja: A dark period of Kurdish history - Our own brief summary of the Anfal campaign and Halabja attack. We invite you to read in their own words, the voices of the victims of Anfal and testimony from journalists who covered the aftermath The Halabja victims were among some 180,000 people killed during the regime's Anfal campaign against the Kurds. Ali Hassan al-Majid, a cousin of Saddam better known as Chemical Ali, was hanged in 2010 for ordering the 1988 attack. Saddam himself was hanged in 2006 after being found guilty over the deaths of 148 Shiite villagers

Anfal Kurdish Genocid

Officially from February 23 to September 6, 1988 (but often thought to extend from March 1987 to May 1989), Saddam Hussein's regime carried out the Anfal (Arabic for spoils) campaign against the large Kurdish population in northern Iraq Apr 05, 2006 · The court defines the bloody Anfal campaign, whose name means the spoils from a favorite Koranic verse of Hussein, as eight military operations in 1988 in the mountainous Kurdish homeland of. March 16, 1988, a genocidal poison gas attack on the city of Halabja in which 3,200-5,000 Kurdish people were killed. Anfal Campaign Genocide Museum. 182,000 broken pieces of glass to represent the victims of Saddam's Anfal genocide. 4,500 bulbs to represent the destroyed villages

‫مێردین ودیاربەکر měrdin u diyar bekir sala 1988 anfal

Al-Anfal Campaign happened on 1988-09-06. The ANZAC Landing ar Gallipoli by Hugh Dolan, author of 36 Days: The Untold Story Behind the Gallipoli Campaign, Pan Macmillan (2010) Operace al-Anfal bylo kódové označení pro genocidní vojenské tažení, během Irácko-íránské války v letech 1988 až 1989, vedené iráckým baasistickým prezidentem Saddámem Husajnem proti Kurdům a dalším nearabským menšinám (Asyřanům, iráckým Turkmenům, Jezídům, Mandejcům a Židům) v severním Iráku Genocide in Iraq: The Anfal Campaign Against the Kurds (Middle East Watch Report) [George Black] on Amazon.com. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. A narrative account of the Iraqi government's organized attempt to eradicate the Kurds living in northern Ira You are currently viewing this article as a guest. If you are a subscriber, please sign in. If you aren't, please subscribe below and get access to the entire Harper's archive for only $23.99/year. Though the bombing occurred during the notorious Anfal campaign against the Kurds, the Halabja attack is usually considered a separate case because it occurred outside of the Anfal s prohibited zones

Story of Anfal - The Kurdistan Memory Programm

the Anfal charges as an opportunity to deflect growing hostility against their autocratic regional regime in the Kurdish north. Resentment erupted recently in the town of Halabja; the scene of the notorious 1988 poison gas attack, which was part of the Anfal campaign and killed more than 5,000 residents The 1988 Anfal campaign was initiated by Saddam Hussein, the president of Iraq (1979-2003). A cousin of Saddam Hussein, Ali Hassan al-Majid (Chemical Ali), led the implementation of the. The Anfal genocide was the Kurdish genocide that killed between 50,000 and 182,000 Kurds committed during the Al-Anfal campaign. During the late stages of the Iran-Iraq War al-Majid was given the post of Secretary General of the Northern Bureau of the Ba'ath Party, in which capacity he served from March 1987 to April 1989 Al-Anfal was the brutal counterinsurgency campaign he waged against the Kurds of northern Iraq. Consisting of eight separate operations and lasting from February until September 1988, the most infamous incident was on March 16, 1988, with the ruthless chemical weapons attack on the Kurdish town of Halabja, near the Iranian border B. The Anfal Trial The Anfal trial of Saddam Hussein, his cousin Ali Hassan al-Majid, and five other co-defendants began on August 21, 2006. The defendants were referred to trial10 based on their alleged roles in planning, authorizing and executing the 1988 Anfal campaign, a series of large-scale

Iraqi Holocaust Files: Anfal Campaign: Iraqi Kurdistan, 1988

22 March 1988 - 14 March 1988: The second stage of the Anfal campaign started in the Qaradakh district 31 March 1988 - 14 April 1988: The third stage of the Anfal campaign started in the Garmyan district 20 April 1988 - 18 April 1988: The fourth stage of the Anfal started in the Askar district, Goptapa, Shwan, Qala, Swaka, Dashti Koy Abstract. In 1988 the Iraqi regime launched the Anfal campaigns against the Kurdish peshmerga and their civil supporters in the rural areas. This article investigates narrations So in 1988, Hussein's government publicly announced a campaign to crush Kurdish resistance. They dubbed it Anfal--The Spoils of War--the title of the eighth chapter of the Koran, which records revelations received by Muhammad after his first victorious battle over non-believers

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